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In order for the raising of cattle to be profitable, it is necessary to take care of the conditions of keeping the animals. Only sheds built according to specific requirements for cows will allow them to grow and develop normally. Their productivity indicators also directly depend on the microclimate in the room, therefore, the choice of materials and manufacturing technology must be treated with full responsibility.
Features of building a barn with your own hands
To make a flock for cows comfortable and functional, it is necessary to make calculations in advance, to decide on the livestock that is planned for breeding. This is one of the main points when building a barn with your own hands. Houses should be comfortable for both cows and people.
In addition, before you start building a cow shed, you need to decide on the choice of materials. These should be simple, budget-friendly, long-lasting options. If livestock will be kept indoors in winter, then an efficient heating system, air circulation, lighting and water supply should be provided.
To get a full-fledged barn for raising cows, you need to know what working areas it should consist of. It:
- place for feeding;
- area for collecting manure;
- summer house with a canopy;
- maternity ward;
- boiler room;
- cattle corral;
- room for inventory;
- storage for milk.
Schemes and drawings
To make it easier to build a cow shed with your own hands, you should prepare a project. In this regard, everything should be thought out to the smallest detail. These are schemes for laying engineering communications, and working rooms, and walking areas.
For keeping cattle when building a barn, they adhere to certain standards, regardless of whether it will be used for 2 heads or for 100. For 1 adult cow, 20 square meters should be allotted. m, and for a calf - 10 sq. m. To maintain an adult bull, 12 sq. m. will be required. m of free space. To calculate the total area of the premises, you need to multiply these parameters by the number of cows that are planned for breeding.
The optimal distance between the stalls is 1.2-1.5 m. It is better to make a barn from 2.5 m in height. To drain slurry from manure, urine, the floor slope should be from 2-3 degrees.
|Rate for 1 animal||Barn height|
|1 adult cow||10-20 m||2.5 m|
|Calf||10 m||2.5 m|
|Adult bull||12 sq. m||2.5 m|
|Numerous livestock||6 sq. m|
Rules for choosing the location of the barn
Starting to build a barn for cows at home, you need to choose the right area for its placement. Taking into account sanitary requirements, the minimum distance from the barn to residential buildings is 15 m, and to the location of the water source - 20 m. By maintaining such standards, it will be possible to avoid water pollution and an unpleasant constant odor in the house.
In addition, it is recommended to provide for the presence of pasture for walking and feeding cattle. Better if it is in the nearest availability.
What materials can you build from?
Each owner strives to build a cowshed cheaply and quickly, using available means. The main thing in the construction of a barn is the use of materials that are safe for animal health; during operation, they should not emit toxic substances.
A good option would be to use wood; planed boards and logs are suitable for these purposes. Considering that the floor in the barn must keep warm, be resistant to aggressive environmental factors, it is worth using for its installation:
- clay-concrete composition.
Clay cover effectively retains heat in the barn. And the concrete floor is characterized by a longer service life and hygiene. Wood is used more often due to its availability, but it quickly deteriorates and absorbs all odors.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
You can build a barn for cows from cinder block, brick, foam concrete with your own hands. It is important to achieve optimal conditions for livestock, it is required to exclude the presence of drafts and cold indoors.
Organization of the construction process
To get a warm barn for cows, you must adhere to a certain algorithm of actions. Each stage requires a responsible approach and the use of quality materials.
Regardless of how many cattle are planned to be kept, a reliable and durable foundation must be made in the barn. For a small room, built of wood, a columnar foundation is enough. If the barn is designed for a large farm, then a monolithic or tape base will be required.
The main thing here is that the foundation is at a depth of soil freezing - from 50 to 100 cm or more. Everything will depend on the characteristics of the climatic zone. The top layer of the earth during the construction of the foundation should be removed and taken out.
The barn floor, both concrete and wood, should slope 5 degrees towards the nearest drain. Thanks to this method, urine and manure will be collected in collection containers. To ensure this slope, the floor level should be 10 cm higher from the ground level.
If the floor is made of concrete, the service life of which is at least 10 years, then wood is used to insulate its surface. But due to the fact that this material absorbs ammonia, it should be replaced at least once every 5 years. When planning drainage ditches, they adhere to a width of 30 cm and a depth of 15 cm. Such parameters make it possible to work freely with a shovel when cleaning livestock waste.
Walls made of stone stand out with increased strength, but they have one serious drawback - a low ability to retain heat. The best option is the use of bricks and foam blocks. But they need additional thermal insulation to maintain a normal indoor climate.
In a climatic zone where winters are harsh, the barn should be made of warmer materials - adobe / shell rock. It is both inexpensive, and the degree of thermal conductivity is low. As for the thickness of the walls, in most cases - one and a half bricks. When using foam blocks, it is enough to lay them in one row. The height of the room should be 2.5 m.
According to the recommendations of experienced farmers, it is best to choose slate sheets for roofing. This building material belongs to the category of budget and practical coatings. The roof installation process is relatively simple, it is necessary:
- Make a frame of planed boards, which are pre-treated with antiseptic compounds.
- Install thermal insulation on top of the wooden structure.
- Fix the slate sheets with fasteners.
The roof can be either single-pitched or gable. The second option is more preferable, there is also a place for hay, and the room turns out to be warmer.
Windows and doors
In a barn, windows are the main source of natural light. According to all standards, their total area must be at least 10% of the entire floor area of the building. As a rule, the lower part of the window opening is located above the floor at a height of 1.5-1.6 m.
There are the following types of shed windows:
- hinged type with a double-glazed window;
- hinged, equipped with a polycarbonate insert;
- sliding with transparent polycarbonate sheets.
It is better to make doors in the barn with a swing plan, which need to be additionally insulated to keep the heat inside the room. For convenience, the gate should be made lifting.
In premises where livestock are kept, it is necessary to equip a feeding place and a recreation area. And provide a drain and tanks for collecting slurry.
Feeders and drinkers
If there are a lot of heads, then it is more advisable to use automatic feeders. Manual feeding is more acceptable for keeping calves or 1-2 cows. The material for the feeders must be safe and not traumatic. Dimensions 70x40x80 cm. They can hold up to 6 kg of grass. Place the feed attachment at a height of 7 cm from the floor.
Tanks for water can have any configuration, the main thing is that it is convenient for animals to drink from them. Tank volume - from 100 liters. It is recommended to place drinkers in the far corner of the barn.
It is good to use straw with the addition of peat for flooring, which helps to absorb unpleasant odors and moisture. Sawdust, shavings, and sand are suitable for these purposes. Initially, you need to fill in a 15 cm layer of litter, then, if necessary, add a new one.
Making a barn for cows with your own hands is not difficult. You can use various materials at hand that are on the farm. The main thing is that it is warm and dry inside the room.