We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
One of the pests of currants is the scabbard. She lives by feeding on the sap of foliage, shoots. The plant becomes infected through the soil, planting material, wind. In order to save fruit bushes and the harvest of berries, you need to know how to deal with the scabbard on the currant, and not only on it.
External description of the parasite and features of life
More than 2.5 thousand species of the scale insect family are known. The parasite is so small, no more than 4 mm, that it is difficult to see it without a magnifying glass.
On the body of the insect is a wax shell. It includes larval skins and a secretion gland. The shape of the scale insects is different: round, oval, pear-shaped. The species and sex of the insect are determined by color: pure white, gray, bright yellow, lemon. A distinctive feature is immobility, since the scale insect does not have wings and legs (females).
The body of the female is shorter than that of the male, no more than 2 mm. It hides under a chitinous shield and takes on the color of a plant. Females change not only color, but body shape and length.
The body of the male is oval, elongated. The color varies from gray to yellowish-dark, almost black. A transverse dark stripe crosses its carapace. The male has legs and wings, unlike the female. He moves and flies short distances. His red eyes are visible under a magnifying glass.
Males die after mating.
Scale larvae go through more than one stage of development.
- Insects are "vagrants". Just born, with a gray oblong body. Without a magnifying glass, the gardener will not see them. At this time, the larvae of scale insects must feed well, therefore the size of their mouth sometimes exceeds the length of the body.
- Nymphs. Intermediate form. The body becomes oval, its color darkens, the scutellum develops.
A fertilized female lives for about 3 months, feeds on plant sap, then lays eggs (up to 600 pieces). In females, the end of the shell is rounded, elongated, where she carries eggs. After laying the eggs, the female dries up, and the eggs do not die in any weather conditions, even harsh ones.
There are many varieties of scale insects. They cause great harm to currant bushes and fruit trees.
The willow scabbard loves currants and gooseberries. There is so much of it that the bush seems to be covered with scabs. Shield aphids do not disdain other trees:
Males differ from females in bright red color.
On the body of the female there is a whitish-gray pear-shaped scutellum. In the male, it is elongated, it has 2 grooves, filmy wings, legs, threadlike whiskers.
Red wandering larvae nimbly spread along the currant branches. Having picked up a convenient place to eat, they pierce the shoot with their mouth, suck the juice. Then the larva does not move, develops, sheds 2 times, does not discard the skins. They form a body protection - a shield. A mature individual continues to live, feed under the shield, and the male throws it off, under it - the wings.
The pillowcloth or birch false shield affects many plants, among them:
- red and black currants;
- bird cherry;
- Birch tree.
Yellow-green female with an oval, slightly convex body, no more than 5 mm long. She has a white egg bag in the back. Parasites attach to leaves, shoots, fruits, because of which the plant dries up and dies.
Pests of garden trees, shrubs:
- purple shield aphid;
- pear scale insects: yellow and red;
There are many other types.
Where do scale insects winter
Many harmful insects, including scale insects, overwinter in the bark of trees. The larvae hide both outside and under the bark, in cracks.
The female lays red oval eggs, which hibernate under the scutellum of the dried female. Up to a hundred future parasites live under each shell. At the beginning of summer, red tramps creep along the currants, attach to the shoots, trunk, leaves. After 2 molts, they become adult females that are able to lay new eggs.
The cushion hibernates on the branches, at the base of the bushes, under the skin. The eggs of the comma-shaped scale hide in cracks in the bark, under the shell of females that have dried up in autumn.
The pest of plum, gooseberry, currant, white acacia, maple - the acacia false shield hides red-orange larvae on the branches, from the inside, in the places of branching, near the buds for the winter. A clutch of eggs looks like flour or white powder.
Mature scale insects do not leave the winter place, settle on the trunk or branches of the plant, feed on its juices. Even before the beginning of summer, anxious males think about offspring. When mating, they take off their shell-protection and die. During the period of transformation into nymphs, a chitinous shield forms on the body of the larvae. After its appearance, the parasite is not afraid of any drug.
Causes of pests
The defeat of garden trees, fruit shrubs with a scabbard will lead not only to loss of yield, but also to the death of plants. Dangerous parasites will eat more than one shrub in several years.
Reasons for the appearance:
- buying infected seedlings;
- contaminated soil;
- rain, wind, animals carrying around the garden.
If plants are damaged by a scabbard, quarantine is imposed in nurseries and the sale of seedlings is prohibited.
To avoid buying an infected bush or seedling, it is advisable to purchase them from trusted producers, in nurseries.
How to recognize a pest: external signs of currant damage
Insect pests can be overlooked. Inspect currant bushes preferably with a magnifying glass. This is how the larvae hiding at the base of the bushes are visible, traces of their vital activity:
- At the initial stage of infection, brown spots appear on the foliage. They increase in size, the leaves curl, dry out.
- The surface of leaves and shoots is sticky, shiny, as if smeared with honey. When these signs appear, it is too late to fight the shield aphid, since it is covered with a shield-protection.
- On trunks, branches, shoots, a gray bloom appears due to a lack of nutritious juices. The growth and development of plants are inhibited, the leaves become smaller and dry out.
- The process of photosynthesis stops, the plant “does not breathe”.
- Dried leaves fall prematurely, the bark cracks.
What damage does currant plantings
The scale insects, feeding on the juice of the currant bush, do not leave nutrients for the growth and development of the plant itself. Photosynthesis stops. Foliage, shoots dry out, the plant weakens, sticky insect secretions pollute the bush.
Part of the plant is damaged first. If you do not take measures to combat the parasite, this will lead to the death of the currant bush, and the pest will choose a new habitat - another currant or gooseberry bush. For 2-3 years, the scale insect will destroy more than a dozen fruit bushes, if you do not fight with it.
How to deal with insects
To save the currant crop, to prevent the bushes from dying, it is necessary to take urgent measures to combat the parasite. It is advisable not to miss the moment when the shield is vulnerable (without the shield), it is easier to destroy it. Events are held in the complex. All methods of struggle are used.
The importance of agrotechnical methods in the fight against parasites can hardly be overestimated, since correct, timely agricultural techniques reduce the risk of diseases and plant death.
The use of agrotechnical measures in the complex creates conditions for the healthy development of useful plants, the death of harmful insects and weeds:
- Hilling fruit bushes is one of the main preventive measures against scale insects. In late autumn, the bushes are prepared for wintering, they are spudded, and in early spring the earth heaps are leveled.
- When a scabbard is found on currant bushes, the affected plants are separated from healthy ones. For this purpose, they are covered with polyethylene.
- The remaining bushes are carefully examined. After being treated with chemistry.
Chemical preparations are powerless against mature insects, since the bodies of the parasites are protected by a shield.
They use the old old-fashioned way - they collect the shield by hand, using a toothbrush, a sponge, and a cotton pad for convenience.
A strong soapy solution is prepared. Moisten the sponge, wipe all the affected parts of the plant: leaves, shoots.
It is impossible to defeat the shield without the use of chemicals. In stores, a wide selection of drugs against shield aphid is widely presented. The most effective, according to gardeners:
How to use the product is indicated in the instructions or on the package. Currant bushes are processed at least three times per summer period. Hormonal and organophosphorus agents are used against the cushion: "Iskra", "Aktellik", "Alatar", "Admiral" and others.
The manufacturer does not recommend using these drugs for people prone to allergies, since they contain active substances that can cause an allergic reaction.
In the fight against parasites in the garden, all means are good. Popular will not be superfluous, which grandmothers and grandfathers used not unsuccessfully:
- A solution of soap and oil. Take 1 part of laundry soap, 3 parts of vegetable oil. The leaves and shoots of the currant bush are thoroughly washed with the solution. After 10 hours, the bushes are washed off with water. Currants are treated with a soap-oil solution 2-3 times with a weekly interval.
- Garlic tincture. 12 cloves of garlic are chopped, poured with a glass of water, insisted for 48 hours. The solution is filtered through cheesecloth, rubbed or sprayed with currants.
- Pepper tincture. It is made from 50 g of pepper. Pour pepper with two glasses of water, boil. The solution is cooled, insisted for a day. Then 10 ml of tincture is added to 1 liter of water, 5 g of soap is grated there. Currant bushes are sprayed with liquid.
- Tobacco tincture. 85 g of tobacco is poured into 1 liter of boiling water. Insist 24 hours, filter, add 1 liter of water. The solution is washed or sprayed with currant bushes.
Folk recipes are safe but less potent. If the results are not visible, chemistry is indispensable.
It is easier to prevent the attack of the scale insects than to get rid of the parasites:
- Spraying currant bushes with "Karbofos" before flowering is a prophylactic agent to prevent scabbard attacks. The drug does not destroy eggs, but mature insects can no longer be on the treated bushes.
- Insecticidal "Karbofos" acts for two weeks, the pests will not be able to feed on the plant sap at this time, they will die.
- Currant bushes are sprayed with tincture on the needles and peel of citrus fruits. The stronger the tincture, the more effective the spraying.
Preventive measures are carried out in the complex:
- timely watering;
- preparation for winter;
- thinning the crown;
- pruning sick, broken branches.
Competent care of currants will not allow scale insects into the garden.
Spray currants in the morning or after sunset. And it doesn't matter what drugs: chemistry or folk tinctures.
Choosing resistant varieties of currants
The range of measures to combat scale insects includes the selection of seedlings that are resistant to parasite damage. Viable, healthy currant bushes are less likely to be attacked by pests.
|Black currant||Red and white currants|
|Nightingale night||Ural beauty|
|Black Pearl||Scarlet dawn|
|In memory of Potapenko||Cherry Viksne|
|In memory of Michurin||Versailles white|
Frequency of treatments
They begin to process currants in early spring. Scale larvae are born, actively grow and develop. At the end of spring, males look for a female, fly around the garden.
The spring months are an important stage in the fight against parasites:
- The first time is treated before the kidneys swell.
- Before flowering, in the budding phase.
- When the currant bush fades.
- Traditional methods of processing are used with a time interval of 7-10 days (2-3 times).
The shield has dangerous enemies. She is a delicious and their main delicacy:
Prospaltella, although it feeds on shield aphids, harms fruit trees such as pears and apple trees.
Ladybug kills up to 75% of garden scale insects. About 700 pieces of shield aphid make up the menu of one ladybug per season.
Birds: blue tit, great tit do not hesitate to eat scale insects.
The scale insect is a parasite that can cause serious damage to crops and garden plantings. The main thing in the fight against insects is not to waste time. Competent garden maintenance and pest control guarantee a bountiful harvest.