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Pisum sativum - Sowing pea is a representative of the most ancient cultivated plants. It is believed that his homeland was the countries of the East. The Dutch were the first Europeans to appreciate the taste and benefits of the new product. The rapid spread of the culture was facilitated by: simple cultivation technology, good taste and many useful properties. Knowing everything about peas can help you improve your health and vitality.
A valuable food and forage plant, peas are among the oldest cultivated crops. Presumably, he was familiar to mankind in the Bronze and Stone Ages. The history of the origin of the plant is not fully understood. Since ancient times, it has been bred in India. The progenitor of cultivated varieties is the field peas.
Man began to cultivate small-seeded forms of sowing peas long before our era, simultaneously with cereals. In the countries of Central and Northern Europe, the plant was cultivated already in the II-III millennium BC. e. In Russia, it has been cultivated since the end of the 17th century. Before the emergence of potatoes, it was part of the main products.
Types and varieties
Peas (lat. Písum) are a genus of perennial and annual herbaceous plants of the legume family. The species of the genus are represented by grasses with a weakly curling stem, feathery leaves and branched antennae clinging to the support. The most common of all types is sowing, which is subdivided into three varieties: hulling, cerebral and sugar.
Dry grains of shell peas are used for making soups, side dishes and other dishes. Pea flour is produced from overripe seeds. Light brain varieties are used in the canning industry, dark ones for freezing. Sugar varieties are most often used in the form of sweet unripe beans (pods are inherent only in plants belonging to the cruciferous family).
The best shelling varieties are Alpha, Viola, Atlant, Premium, Emerald, Tropar. The best brain varieties are Belladonna, Calvedon, Debut, Medovik, Sweet Giant. The description of the Belladonna variety separately notes its high yield, frost resistance and high taste.
In summer cottages, it is recommended to grow the most prolific varieties of sugar peas: Inexhaustible, Zhegalova 112, Rubchik, Pervenets and Sakharny 2.
Chickpeas, Uzbek chickpeas
Chickpeas are the oldest member of the legume family. It has many names - Turkish chickpeas, walnuts, Uzbek chickpeas, mutton peas, nohat, bubbler, shish and others. The homeland of the plant is the Middle East and Central Asia, where it is called the golden grain. Also grown in Eastern Europe and Mediterranean countries, Africa and South America.
On the territory of Greece, chickpea seeds were found dating back to the 5th century BC. Peas from the Bronze Age have been found in Iran. Since the time of Avicenna, chickpeas have not only been used for food, but also for medicinal purposes. It was believed that it cleanses the blood, heals the kidneys and liver. Helps with skin diseases (eczema, furunculosis, psoriasis), increases male strength.
The Uzbek chickpea is an annual plant with swollen, short beans containing 1-3 rough peas in the shape of a ram's head. Grows up to 70 cm in height. Differs in good yield and disease resistance. Peas are white or brown in color. Indian varieties are colored green.
Has a pronounced nutty flavor. It is widely used in cooking for soups, pilaf, cutlets, salads, hummus. Sprouted chickpeas are used in dietary and medical nutrition.
The sea variety, or Japanese rank (Lathyrus japonicus) is a plant of the China genus of the Legume family. The range of this species is an area stretched out in a narrow strip along the northern part of the Pacific coast. The plant grows on sandy and rocky shores. It is a herbaceous perennial, in contrast to sown green peas. Reaches 30 cm in height.
Japanese China blooms in July and bears fruit in August. The oblong-oval beans of the marine variety reach 5 cm in length. The plant is grown in places of natural distribution. China Japanese is widely used for decorative purposes, the most common in the design of rocky gardens.
The sea variety is a traditional food of the peoples of the north. Alaska Eskimos use leaves and sprouted seeds for food, make flour and stew from legumes, prepare a hot drink that replaces coffee. Fresh stems and leaves of the plant are used in folk medicine as a remedy for rheumatism.
Mouse pea (Vícia crácca) is a herbaceous perennial of the genus Pea in the legume family. Mouse peas have many popular names - crane peas, chenille, passerine pods, mouse vetch, passerine flower, etc. It has a wide growing area. Occurs in meadows, fields, slopes, forest edges and roadsides.
The green mass contains a large amount of protein, vitamin C, carotene, phosphorus. The chemical composition of the plant is not fully understood.
The branchy, clinging stems grow up to 120 cm. The leaves are paired with 6-10 pairs of leaves; the mouse pea has 2 stipules at the base of the petioles. Flowering continues throughout the summer. The fruits are beans, about 20 mm long. It is used as a valuable forage, medicinal and melliferous plant.
Mash (lat.Vigna radiata) is an annual herb of the genus Vigna of the legume family. The homeland of this leguminous crop is India. Other names: mung beans, golden beans, Asian peas, radiant beans. A beautiful and graceful plant looks more like a bean. The thin leaves of mung peas end in highly branched tendrils. The small green seeds are oval in shape.
Mash is widely used in the national cuisines of China, Japan, Korea, India, countries of Central and Southeast Asia. It is eaten peeled and sprouted. Masha sprouts are a classic ingredient in Asian cuisine. The fruits of this culture contain folic acid, vitamins A, C, E, group B, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, magnesium, iron, silicon, selenium and other useful elements.
In folk medicine, mung bean is used to treat allergies, asthma, arthritis. Regular consumption of mung beans has a positive effect on the work of the cardiovascular system, normalizes blood pressure, strengthens bone tissue and helps to maintain flexibility of joints.
Calorie content and composition
The calorie content and chemical composition of the product varies depending on which variety of the genus of seed peas it belongs to. Most of the calories are contained in dried peas of shelling grades - 348 kcal / 100 g. The calorie content of fresh green peas and sugar varieties does not exceed 80 kcal / 100 g. Due to the low calorie content and a large list of vitamins and minerals, the product is classified as dietary.
Peas contain 2-3 times more protein than grain crops. This effect is due to the symbiosis of all legumes with nodule bacteria. The high content of complete protein in combination with vitamins and microelements makes it a good alternative to meat and an indispensable product for a vegetarian diet.
The plant contains vitamins A, C, E, P and the whole group B, proteins, fats, amino acids, dietary fiber, minerals - selenium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc, chromium, manganese, boron, vanadium, cobalt, silicon, molybdenum, iodine, strontium, zirconium and others.
Properties and healthy recipes
The tasty and healthy pea fruit serves as the basis for the preparation of many old and new dishes. There are hundreds of different types of healthy food recipes. The exceptional properties and characteristics of the plant are used in dietary and medical nutrition.
For good health
Peas can reasonably be called a medicinal plant. All of its varieties are widely used in traditional medicine. It is used to treat diseases of the kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract. Used as an anticonvulsant, sedative, tonic, diuretic. Outwardly - as a wound healing and hemostatic agent.
Its regular use improves vision and memory, raises immunity. Peas are often called shoulder blades and are eaten fresh to strengthen the heart muscle and normalize digestion. Just one handful of young peas will provide a daily dose of niacin, which normalizes cholesterol and serves to prevent atherosclerosis.
An effective anti-aging agent is a nutritious pea mask with sour cream, cottage cheese, yolk and other ingredients. The inclusion of peas in the diet will promote cleanliness and smoothness of the skin, strengthen teeth and nails, and hair growth. A decoction of crushed flowers and pea herbs will help with facial swelling.
Peas are especially useful for children. They enjoy eating sugar and brain green peas. In baby food, peas of shelling varieties must also be used in food for making soups and side dishes.
Despite the beneficial properties of the pea plant, there are a number of restrictions on its use. It is contraindicated in acute nephritis, progressive gout, thrombophlebitis, increased blood clotting, during periods of exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases. At the same time, fresh or soaked in water, peas are useful to eat 3-4 pieces. with heartburn. Also, a contraindication to use is Crohn's disease, pathology of the bladder, cholecystitis.
Planting begins in early spring, as soon as the ground warms up a little. Small frosts are not terrible for the plant. In order to constantly have a fresh harvest of green blades in the spring-summer period, it is necessary to re-sow every 7-10 days. It is recommended to plant peas in a rotation with potatoes and cabbage. It is a good predecessor for all crops (excluding legumes).
Peas prefer light, fertile soil with a low groundwater table. In swampy and low-lying places, it suffers from an excess of moisture. It ripens best in well-lit and ventilated areas. The use of fresh manure as fertilizer is unacceptable, as it stimulates the increased growth of green mass to the detriment of fruit set.
Before planting, it is useful to add ash - it will replace potash fertilizers. Peas are a green manure plant that is an effective natural fertilizer. They not only serve as a source of nutrients that increase soil fertility, but also improve the structure of the upper layer, as well as heal the earth. After harvesting, the roots and stems are not removed from the site, but embedded in the soil during the autumn digging to enrich it with nitrogen.
Before planting, field peas are soaked in water at room temperature for 10-12 hours to ensure quick and friendly shoots. You can select quality seed by placing the seeds in salted water. Peas suitable for planting will settle to the bottom, after which they should be rinsed with clean water.
The seeds are planted to a depth of 4-6 cm. The distance between the peas in the rows is about 10-15 cm. The interval between the rows is 35-40 cm. After sowing, the soil in the rows is compacted to retain moisture. If the seed was of high quality, then seedlings will appear in a week. Maintenance is simple and includes loosening and moderate watering. During hot and dry periods, watering should be abundant.
The bean harvest continues throughout the summer. Different storage methods are used depending on the type of crop. The peas, harvested for fresh consumption, are stored in the refrigerator in plastic bags or vessels. For long-term storage, it is canned, dried or frozen. Dry peas are stored in a dark and dry place.