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Farms in developed countries use different methods for raising animals, which differ in their approach to keeping and feeding. To breed pigs for the sale of meat, you first need to find and equip a room, provide ventilation and good lighting. To organize a mini-farm, in addition to creating optimal conditions, studying the peculiarities of keeping animals, it is necessary to choose the right piglets.
Is it profitable to breed pigs at home
The demand for meat persists and even increases, as the supply from abroad decreases, villagers leave for cities and stop raising animals. Pig breeding requires cash investments:
- for the purchase of a site;
- arrangement of the premises;
- for the purchase and vaccination of young animals;
- for the preparation of feed, medicines.
Money will be needed to install a ventilation system, for electricity, for the salaries of workers caring for piglets, for transporting meat for sale. To make the room convenient to clean, they make floors with cracks or build concrete bathtubs with a drain. The profitability of pig breeding is at least 20%, while the net income from raising chickens does not exceed 15%, and cows are even lower.
Piglets grow in less than a year. For 3.5 months, the female bears 5-8, and sometimes 10 cubs. 90% of lard and meat is obtained from the carcass, which is always in demand. Pigs eat whatever they are fed, while cows need hay, rabbits need fresh grass, and chickens need special food.
Breeding each type of animal has its own nuances. It is not very pleasant to take care of piglets, to clean the room. The process takes a lot of time and labor. The giving birth female and piglets must be kept separately, provided with careful care, otherwise the offspring may not survive.
Pigs often contract the infection, which leads to the death of the livestock. To prevent this from happening, animals must be vaccinated, for which money is needed. When keeping, you must strictly adhere to sanitary standards.
For which regions is it suitable?
Meat and greasy pigs are in demand in the North, Siberia, and the Khabarovsk Territory. In the southern regions, the forest-steppe, it is possible to breed the Mirgorod breed, which gives a large offspring; in the middle lane for animals of this breed, an insulated room is required.
At home, you can comfortably keep Vietnamese pigs, since they require a smaller room. To create a farm, it is not necessary to bring highly productive piglets from afar, because you will have to spend money on transportation. Meat is quickly sold out everywhere, you can engage in pig breeding in any region, provided you choose the right breed.
Estimated start-up capital
For business development, you should not immediately buy a hundred pigs. You can buy only 10 piglets, which will require at least 30 thousand rubles. For the construction and equipment of the premises, you need to spend 50-60. Feed for pigs will cost 40,000, another 3-4 need to pay for the vaccination of piglets. The initial capital for creating a mini-farm will be from 120 thousand, and this is not so much money that pays off in a year.
Legal registration of a pig breeding business
In order for the regulatory authorities to visit the animal owner less and not to issue fines, it is necessary to collect paperwork for legal registration. If there are more than a hundred animals, you will have to register as an LLC or an individual entrepreneur, and indicate in the type of activity: raising pigs for meat. With a small number of pigs, you can arrange a mini-farm as a backyard farm.
Breed selection rules
Every person who decides to engage in animal husbandry should know for what purpose he does it, what product he is going to sell.
Pigs of the universal type have a harmonious constitution, a wide elongated body, muscular hams, and a dense belly. Piglets gain weight quickly, produce high-quality and tasty meat. After the slaughter of an adult animal, up to 37% fat is present. Farmers often breed Siberian, northern, Ukrainian white, since piglets provide up to 60% of meat.
Mirgorodskaya, meishan, large black have a wide body, strong chest, dense ham, ganaches. Muscles in sebaceous piglets stop developing by 6 months, and fat accumulates at an accelerated rate. Meat in animal carcasses contains less than 50%, and lard - up to 45.
Piglets with smaller breasts in circumference than the openings of an elongated body and rather massive hams quickly build muscle, fat is deposited slowly. Six month old bacon pigs weigh about 100 kg, 75% of the carcass is meat. Farmers prefer to grow Landrace, Pietrain, Urzhum.
For further fattening, you need to choose the right calf. He must weigh at least 5 kg, be at least a month old. With proper nutrition, the weight of a healthy piglet triples in 30 days.
When choosing a pig, you need to pay attention:
- on the condition of the eyes;
- color of mucous membranes;
- the length of the legs;
- head shape.
You can not buy a pig with dried excrement on the bottom, as this indicates diarrhea, and the sick cub may not survive. A stiff bristle appears on the body with scabies.
An animal with short legs and a light head should be chosen for fattening for lard or bacon, with high ones for meat. It is better to buy pigs and pigs in more than one place, otherwise weak offspring will be born. Active, healthy piglets with a curled tail are distinguished by excellent appetite, during feeding they push, grab food.
Required real estate and equipment
Opening even a small farm will require a permit. The pigsty cannot be kept within the city, next to a source of drinking water. The piglet room must meet certain requirements:
- The optimum temperature for keeping pigs is 18–25 ° C. If in winter the mercury column drops to 12, the pigsty is insulated.
- The minimum ceiling height is 2.5 m.
- For ventilation, openable windows are installed.
- The walls are advised to be plastered, whitewashed, and sheathed with boards in cold regions.
- A separate corner is set aside for feeding, the walking area is fenced off for pigs.
The concrete floor should not be left in the room, it should be covered with wooden shields, cracks should be made, which will not allow dirt and waste products to accumulate.
For 1 adult pig, according to sanitary standards, 3-4 m is required, for a pregnant female - 5. The area of a pigsty for 10 heads should be about 60 meters. It is convenient to heat the room with the help of heat generators. In the piglet area, it is recommended to lay out rugs into which water is supplied from the boiler, to install heating lamps, drinkers.
The pig room is equipped with a feed loader or a chain-washer conveyor for liquid food, a system for removing manure, and a water supply system.
Care and maintenance of pigs
In order for piglets to gain weight quickly, in addition to creating optimal conditions in the room, you need to know how to properly care for them. For novice farmers, simpler methods of keeping pigs are suitable. With the Canadian technology, a voluminous bedding is constructed from sand, sawdust and straw, which warms the piglets in the cold season. The method is suitable for both large households and households.
To reduce the time for caring for pigs, to reduce the specific odor, Danish technology is used, in which cracks are made in the floor, baths are installed under it, where the remains of manure and waste products of piglets flow down. Once a month, the premises must be decontaminated.
Organization of feeding
Pigs, which are raised for sale, are given not only food waste, vegetables, but also compound feed containing vitamins, microelements, animals are given clean water. Piglets' appetite increases when they walk outdoors.
How do pigs breed?
To breed offspring, the livestock owner must study the features of farrowing, caring for a sow. The diet of a young female used for breeding should contain:
In the last stages of pregnancy, coarse food is replaced with bran, flour, and silage. Give the pig chalk, table salt. They feed the uterus three times a day, make sure not to overeat. Newborn piglets are applied to the nipples, babies feed on colostrum for the first days.
Aggressive sows are sorted out, the cubs are brought to another female or gently taught to cow's milk.
If there are a lot of animals, the owner cannot cope with them and is forced to hire workers. For 200 pigs, 3-4 employees will be required, who will be engaged in fattening, cleaning the premises, loading hay, weighing pigs, sending them to slaughter. The veterinarian is obliged to monitor the health of animals, timely vaccinate pigs, prevent diseases. The zootechnician is responsible for the keeping regime, for raising pigs.
If the farmer doesn’t have enough time to prepare accounts, he will have to hire an accountant for at least ½ the rate.
Sales of products
To sell meat or lard, you need to obtain quality certificates and have the conclusion of the veterinary service in your hands. You can supply pork to stores, sell it in your own kiosk or pavilion open on the market. With large volumes of products, manufacturers sign contracts with meat processing plants, slaughterhouses.
The money received from the sale of piglet meat in the first years should be invested in improving the farm, purchasing equipment. The costs will quickly pay off, the business will bring a stable income.